Friday, December 10, 2010


In this post, I will be giving you an overview of New Zealand! Let us first take a look at how New Zealand Tourism Board market itself as a tourist destination!

Welcome to the Youngest Country on Earth

Doesn't the video make you feel like teleporting there now? As we can see from the video, it focuses on its beautiful scenery, the Maori culture, water and land sports and New Zealand as the youngest country on earth.

New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean. It is situated approximately 994 miles off the southeast coast of Australia, across the Tasman Sea. It consists of the North and South Islands, Stewart Islands and several smaller islands.

With a total land mass area of 104 453 square miles, New Zealand is about the size of Colorado. These slim islands where the country lies exhibit an amazing diversity of scenery and an impressively long coastline.

The 2 main islands, North and South, are separated by Cook Straits, which at is narrowest point is about 20km wide.

Capital: Wellington


New Zealand's ocean environment keeps the climate mild, but the mountains and the prevailing winds caused the temperature to vary. The warmest months are December, January, February and March and their winter is during June, July and August.

Most of New Zealand enjoys over 2000 hours of sunshine a year but sunbathers have to be very careful as the breaks in the ozone layer in the Antipodes are severe, Auckland has the highest rate of melanoma in the world. Weather forecasts in New Zealand always include references to the burn factor and the length of time one can safely stay in the sun. It is even a regulation that school children bring hats to play outside!

Thursday, December 9, 2010

The Culture

New Zealand has a unique and dynamic culture. It has a unique blend of Maori and European heritage. Although New Zealanders come from different nationalities and backgrounds, they gained a sense of identity which is called they "Kiwi" persona.

The name Kiwi derived from their national bird. Kiwi is a flightless bird and is native to New Zealand.

"Kiwi" is also a nickname for people from New Zealand.

Even the kiwi fruit name originated from the bird!

A large number of New Zealanders are Christians. Anglicans are the next largest, followed by Catholics and Presbyterians. The variety of immigrants has meant that Islam, Hinduism and Buddhism have increased.

Maori Religion
The Maori religion is closely related to nature and to the ancestors. Nature itself is considered a living being and thus the interaction between man and nature is bound by prescripts and rituals.
Anything associated with supernatural is called "tapu". Objects and humans could also possess "mana", psychic power.

Women are very well respected in New Zealand. This can be seen from the country's top jobs which includes the Prime Minister.
The first female New Zealand Prime Minister was Jenny Shipley and she was succeeded by the next Prime Minister, Helen Clark, in 1999.

Historically, women played a vital role as they had to bring up and educate their children, earn a living and take care of the sick. Therefore, it is not surprising that the influence of women in society is now considerable.

With the arrivals of immigrants from different parts of the world, it has influenced the New Zealanders view about food. Many new and creative ways of food preparation and presentation have evolved from a blend of ethnic influences to produce what is now called the Pacific Rim Cuisine.

New Zealand is blessed with an abundance of meat, seafood, fruits and vegetables. New Zealanders are interested in food and wine and there are festivals around the year to promote and enjoy food produced from different regions.
For example, the second Saturday in February is the time for the Wine and Food Festival in Marlborough.

Barbecue is very much enjoyed by New Zealanders. They spend a lot of their time socializing, visiting friends and relatives and sharing food together. Barbercue allows them to enjoy the food and company during summer months.

Table Manners

New Zealanders follow the European custom for table manners. They use a knife on the right hand and a fork on the left throughout the meal. Utensils are rested on the plate during a pause and are placed parallel upon finishing.

Service charges and tips are not included in bills. Tipping is not traditionally practiced in New Zealand. However, in major cities such as Auckland, tipping about 10% of the amount reflected on the receipt is common.

Maori Food Traditions
The Maori people cooked their food in earth-ovens called hangi. Hangi is prepared by digging a pit, setting up mountainous pile of food in it and then placing stones on top. The fire is then lit to heat the stones.

Traditional Maori believed that the earth was the giver of all life. From the soil, came food and that same food was cooked beneath the earth.

It was accepted that the people who were born on that land inherited the right to produce from it and to protect it for the benefit of all.

Wednesday, December 8, 2010

Traditions of New Zealand

New Zealand's national holidays include New Year's Day, Waitangi Day, Easter, ANZAC Day, the Queen's Birthday, Labor Day and Christmas. ANZAC Day and Waitangi Day marks the turning points in the nation's history.

Waitangi Day
This day is on the 6th of February every year. The purpose is to commemorate the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840. This day is a time for New Zealanders to reflect on their past and to appreciate the unifying of the Maori and Pakeha (Maori term for New Zealanders who are not of Maori blood lines).

ANZAC stands for Australian and New Zealand Army Corps formed during World World I. It is on the 25th of April every year. It is to commemorate all those who died and served in military operations for their countries at Gallipoli in Turkey during World War I.

Tuesday, December 7, 2010

The Indigenous Group - Maori

The Maori are the original inhabitants of New Zealand. The Maori came to New Zealand as long as 1,500 years ago. They travelled in canoes from Tahiti, the Cooks Islands, and other Pacific islands. The people of the south and central Pacific islands are known as Polynesians

Maori made up about 15% of the population in New Zealand. They hold jobs in all areas of the workforce and live the modern lifestyle. Very few Maori live the traditional lifestyle of their ancestors.

However, in recent decades, the interest in Maori culture has increased. Many Maori are learning to treasure their culture to pass it on to future generations.

The Maori refer to themselves as the Tangata Whenua, which means "people of the land". There are several different tribes among the Maori. They are called iwis. Just like we Chinese have our different dialects, each iwi also has its own dialect and way of doing things. Iwis are split into several hapus (subtribes). An example would be Whanua, which is an even smaller division, consisting of an extended family.

Maori tribes were divided into several social classes. The most important person was the high chief followed by his immediate family and then others who have achieved high rank through their accomplishments. The priest was next in rank. He determined which people and places were sacred. He was also responsible for remembering and telling tribe's history. Following which were the skilled artists and warriors. They were followed by the common people who worked in the land. The lowest in rank were slaves captured from other tribes.

Maori Weaving
Maori women used flax to weave sandals, skirts, cloaks, baskets and mats. They decorated their them with dyes made from berries as well as feathers and dog hair. Modern artists still practice traditional Maori weaving arts.

The Carving Tradition
Traditional Maori craving has intricate detailing and curved lines. The amazing thing about it is that it was done by stone tools. The most popular image was the human form, with a realistic face with complex tattoo markings but an out-of-proportion body. Scary-looking figures with tongues poking out were placed at the entrances to Maori fortresses to frighten enemies.

Modern Maori carvers have kept the old traditions alive and thus, they are popular with tourist.

Song and Dance
Dancing and singing are usually inseparable from indigenous groups. Maori is no exception. Villagers would gather to sing and dance in the evenings. The traditional Maori song of welcome, the waiata, is still alive today in Maoridom. The video below is an example of the Maori waiata.

Although I do not understand the lyrics, the beauty of the harmonies and the music is impressive.

Action Songs:
were Maori action songs. Singers would use every part of their body to help impart the song's message. The Maori had many different type of hakas, each has its own style. The haka maimai, for example, was performed during the period of mourning for the dead. The haka piori was performed to avenge and injury or insult. It was accompanied by actions that showed contempt for the watchers.

Ka Mate - Haka of the All Blacks:
New Zealand national rugby team, the All Blacks - has been performing the Ka Mate Haka before its international games since 1905. Below is video of the All Blacks team performing Ka Mate Haka.

The video reflected the ferocious power and force of the Maori culture. It is performed as a challenge to the opposing team. It includes rhythmic thigh and chest beating and a concluding high leap.

Modern Maori wear western-style clothing. Maori wear traditional outfits only on special occasions. But these clothes are still a very important part of Maori culture. Some modern fashion designers even use Maori images and patterns in their clothing.

Men's Attire
For working or fighting, Maori men wore only a breechcloth at the waist.

For formal occasions, men wore various kinds of cloaks and capes. They also wore ornaments around their necks and feathers or greenstone earrings in their ears. Men typically wore their hair in a top knot. They usually dye their bodies with a red dye made from ocher, which is a kind of iron.

Women's Wear
For Maori women, their daily clothes consisted of a girdle of braided flax cord around the waist, with a fringe of leaves in front. Women also wore skirts made from strands of dyed flax.

On formal occasions, women wore beautifully decorated capes made of flax fiber or dog skin.

Maori Tattoo
Tattooing is a sacred art among the Maori people of New Zealand. Both Maori men and women wore face tattoo known as moko.

Warriors tattooed their entire face as well as their thighs and buttocks.

Moko was applied when a one reaches the age of marriage. It acts as a form of announcement that he or she was available to the opposite sex. The most popular moko designs were spirals and curves.The tattoos were made with dye and carved into the skin with small chisels made of bird bones.

Women tattooed only their chins and lips.

Traditional tattooing is still practiced among some modern Maori.

Traditional tattoos are found on the face but modern tattoo are usually found on the body. In addition, modern tattoo equipment are used instead of the traditional dyes.

Monday, December 6, 2010

New Zealand's Language

New Zealand's two official languages are English and Maori. Maori is only used in New Zealand and nowhere else in the world. Despite its official status, the language continues to struggle against being lost.

The funny fact is that English is the first language of about 95% of the population and the only language spoken by 90% of the population. This make New Zealand one of the most monolingual nations in the world.

People in New Zealand are educated in British English just like Singapore. National newspapers and public documents are written in standard English. However, Maori words have been included in their vocabulary and their language have been influenced by both the Australian and American English.

New Zealanders are often mistaken for Australians when they are overseas. The main difference between the New Zealanders and Australian accent is the short "i" vowel. Australian "fish and chips" sounds like feesh and cheeps to a New Zelander, who pronounce it fush and chups, and "Sydney" sounds like Seedney

It is the first language of some 50 000 adult Maori New Zealanders (12% of Maori's population). The use of the landguage was encouraged through a Maori-language preschool movement and Maori-language immersion primary schools. They teach pupils the entire school curriculum in Maori.

Below is a video that I found which I think is a great start to learning the Maori language.

Sunday, December 5, 2010

Education System

Education in New Zealand can be divided into four areas:

  1. Early childhood education: for children aged between 2 and a half to 5 years
  2. Compulsory Sector/Primary school (ages 5-13 years)
  3. Compulsory Sectore /Secondary school (ages 13+)
  4. Tertiary Education (not compulsory - ages 16+)
Parents or guardians are legally responsible for ensuring a child is enrolled and receives government funded compulsory schooling from age 6 to 16 years. Education in New Zealand is free up to the age of 19.

Legislation states that every educational institution must treat a disabled student the same as an able-bodied student and offer special education for those with different needs.

Corporal punishment in an educational institution is against the law.

Saturday, December 4, 2010

Types of Leisure Programmes

New Zealand International Arts Festival
It is New Zealand's premier and largest cultural event and celebrates the best arts entertainment from around the world and within New Zealand. This festival is staged every two years in Wellington. It presents strong international programme which attracts visitors from all over the world. It is held over a period of 3 weeks and performances ranges from large-scale opera to mime and street artists.

The Wine Marlborough Festival

The Marlborough Wine Festival is New Zealand's longest running and most successful wine festival. The Marlborough Wine Festival 2011 will be held on Saturday 12 February. Some of the events include wine tutorials, food and wine matching competition and entertainment from New Zealand's leading performers.

New Zealand International Film Festival
This is a national event which is held annually across the country. This festival is the consolidation of several separately film festivals into a single event known as The New Zealand International Film Festival which occurred for the first time in 2009.

The Great New Zealand Trek Event
This is a novel event, as it provides participants the freedom to choose their mode of transport to travel around the various parts of New Zealand. The Great New Zealand Trek Event is held every year in order to create awareness about the multiple Sclerosis disease.

Rugby World Cup 2011
Rugby World Cup (RWC) 2011will be hosted in New Zealand. The event will be start on the 10 September 2011 and culminating with the final being played at Eden Park in Auckland on the 23 October. New Zealand has thirteen venues for the 2011 Rugby World Cup, including Eden Park and North Harbour Stadium in Auckland, AMI Stadium in Christchurch, Westpac Stadium in Wellington as well as a number of other Stadiums around both North and South Island. Twenty teams from across the world will be competing for the Cup. Rugby is considered to be the national sport of New Zealand. Therefore, this event holds a significant value to the New Zealanders.

Competitive Sports
As I mentioned above, the national sport of New Zealand is Rugby. The national team is the internationally renowned All Blacks. They won the first World Cup Rugby competition in 1987.

Maori and Pacific Islanders are a vital part of New Zealand's Rugby. But the name All Blacks is derived from the colour of their jersey and pants and not the ethnicity of the players.

Cricket is another sport that is popular in New Zealand.

It is the oldest sport played in New Zealand as it has a history of over 150 years. Their team name is known as the Black Caps and there are both men's and women's teams.

The first game they won was against the West Indies in 1956.

Leisure Sports
Sports are a vital part of New Zealanders life. On average, they spend 2.5 hours a week on physical activity. The more popular sports are swimming, cycling, tennis and golf. Golf is popular with the middle-aged people. People engage in these activities not only to keep themselves fit but to enjoy the company of others.

New Zealanders are fond of going on holiday. They usually take holiday during the summer months or winter breaks to enjoy the ski-fields. Families flock to camping grounds near the sea or lakes where they can fish, swim or sail their yachts.

Gardening is a popular hobby among thousands of New Zealanders.

They have cottage gardens, wild gardens, formal gardens, herb gardens, etc. They usually have television programmes to educate them the latest techniques and hybrids.

New Zealanders also love to read. In fact, it is estimated that they actually read and purchase more books per head of population than any other English-speaking country.

Friday, December 3, 2010

What is New Zealand known for?

The first 2 thoughts that pops into most minds when they think of New Zealand is the beautiful scenery and their indigenous group - Maori.

In this post, I will be recommending places of beautiful scenery for visit.
We shall first look at some beautiful landscape of New Zealand.


Cardrona Vally
The Cardrona Vally looks across the stunning Lake Wanaka and the snow-capped Southern Alps which acts as a backdrop of the Misty Mountains surrounding Rivendell in The Lord of the Rings.

Cardrona Valley is a popular route for those wanting to combine some adventure activity with a scenic drive.

Nugget Point
At Nugget Point you can visit the lighthouse built in 1869. It's a steep land with a lighthouse and a scattering of rocky islets. It is one of the most iconic landforms and is home to many seabirds, including penguins, gannets and spoonbills.

From Nugget Point it's an easy walk to Roaring Bay, where you can hide and wait for yellow-eyed penguins. Early morning or sunset are the best times for viewing.

Lake Manapouri
This is the deepest lake in the country. It is one of the Southern Lakes, found in the highland which were formed by the glacial deepening of an existing stream valley section of Fiorland National Park, accompanied by damming of the valley.

Manapouri derives its name from a Maori word meaning “lake of the sorrowing heart,” with reference to a legend that its waters are the tears of dying sisters.

Huka Falls
Huka Falls, New Zealand is located in the Wairakei Tourist Park. There are several fantastic viewing platforms which allow visitors to have a great view of the Huka Falls.

There is also a footbridge which spans over the Waikato River. During the 1930s a small hydro-electric power station was constructed just below the Huka Falls. It supplied power to the Wairakei Hotel until the mid 1950s when it was replaced by electricity.

Mount Tarawera
Mount Tarawera plays an important role in the history of New Zealand. It is sacred and under the guardianship of the Ngati Rangitihi Maori tribe. Mountt Tarawera last erupted on 10th June 1886, killing over 150 people, devastated the landscape and splitting the whole mountain into two.

Three Sisters and the Elephant
In this picture, it shows two of the three sisters that are left and the Elephant Rock in the background.

Here, you will be able to see the spectacular views of the rock formations and the white cliffs of North Taranaki.

Interestingly, there were four sisters at the start of the century, but the sea has gradually eroded one away.

Thursday, December 2, 2010

Disneyization in New Zealand


The book "Disneyization of Society" written by Alan Bryman defines Disneyization as:

"the process by which the principles of the Disney theme parks are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as the rest of the world."

More and more aspects of our society are exhibiting features that are associated with Disney theme parks. Thus, it becomes a lens through which the nature of modern society can be viewed, as well as a way of thinking about issues to do with consumption and globalisation.
There are four dimensions to disneyization and they are:

· Theming
Theming is the most obvious dimension of disneyization. Theming offers consumers the opportunity to be entertained and to enjoy the novel experiences. The more standardized services and places become, the more important theming becomes as a mechanism of differentiation.
Examples of theming includes: Amusement parks, restaurants, McDonald’s, themed shopping, museum, etc.

· Hybrid Consumption
A general trend whereby the forms of consumption associated with different institutional spheres becomes interlocked with each other and increasingly difficult to distinguish. The rationale is that the more consumption items are fixed, the longer people will stay in the venue to which they have been attracted to in the first place.
Examples of Hybrid Consumption includes: Hotels and casinos, theme parks, shopping and restaurants, etc.

· Merchandising
This refers to the promotion and sale of goods in the form of bearing copyright images, including products made under license. It has strong affinities with hybrid consumption. It attracts further revenue from an image that has already attracted people.
Examples of Merchandising includes: Merchandising at Disney, themed restaurants and themed hotels.

· Performative Labour
Rendering of work by managements and employees alike as akin to a theatrical performance in which the workplace is construed as similar to a stage. It uses emotional labour whereby employees as part of their work, need to convey emotions and preferably to appear as it is deeply held. The rationale of it is closely linked to the quality of the service or the goods being supplied in the course of a service transaction.
Examples of Performative Labour includes: Airline Cabin Crews, shop workers, telephone call centres




Disneyland is an enclosed theme park as it creates the ambience to make people feel like they are in another world.
Shopping malls in New Zealand are also enclosed. This is from a view of a shopping mall manager: ‘I think to have an enclosed shopping centre is pretty crucial to flow and to how the centre will track. It creates that ambience. If you don’t have an enclosed environment there is no ambience’. By having an enclosed shopping mall, visitors can step into another world just like stepping into Disneyland.

Seasonal Theming

Christmas is unquestionably the most popular season. There will always be Christmas trees and Santa Claus appearing in every mall. Huge amount of money are spend on creating the Christmas ambience in shopping malls to attract visitors in and get into the Christmas spirit by purchasing things. Thousands of dollars are spent on an annual basis fitting out New Zealand shopping malls in an attempt to get visitors into the Christmas spirit.

Wherever we are, staffs we meet are often taught on their choice of words, the way they should look and also what should wear. These are all efforts to visitors feel comfortable and eventually spend more.

Wherever you go in Disneyland, there will always be staff greeting you with a wide smile. This is from the Disney institute where they learned that ‘you never get a second chance to make a first impression’.

The cast members of Disneyland are obliged to go through thorough classes about the art of performative labour at Disney University. It coaches them the proper concepts and behaviour of a cast member.

In New Zealand shopping malls, the encouragement of purchase is done by individual retailers and the management cannot really step in and run the show. What the management does is that they perform customer service and are planning to have a concierge desk with people randomly walking around giving lollies.


MusicIn Disneyland, one can observe that there is a programmed sound with a range of themed music repeating everywhere in the park. Speakers can be found all around the park. Disney entrepreneurs reform visitors’ mood to their ideal (anticipation and pleasurable) by using music. Even when one is not in the theme park, as long as they Disney theme music is heard, one would relate it to Disneyland and subconsciously, have the urge to return there.

In New Zealand shopping malls, music can be heard upon entrance just like Disneyland. Disneyland uses music to alter the mood of visitors whereas music used in shopping malls influences how we think as it is a type of audio merchandising and subconsciously, it tells us to buy. Linking it to hybrid consumption, which states that it is used to increase the consumption of visitors, New Zealand's shopping malls in this case display the dimension of hybrid consumption as music is used to raise expenditures.

Northlands Shopping Centre in Christchurch has a fairly huge mix of "institutional spheres", such as multiplex cinema, time zone arcade game area, flight simulator, restaurant and bar, food court, two supermarkets, hair and beauty salon, two banks and an excess amount of retail stores.

Disney offers a lot of exclusive merchandise with their logo on it. Visitors who buy it usually do not use it when they are back in their country. Just like the t-shirt on the left, bearing the Disney logo. How often do we actually see people wearing them? They are often bought as it a shouts out to people that"This is where I have been!"

The people who purchase all these souvenirs often link their purchase to part of their esteem as it is usually seen as prestige.

Merchandising has successfully created the feeling of longing whereby consumers pay for something they do not actually need.


This can be seen in the Maori culture as Maori is unique to New Zealand.

Tourists usually purchase
Maori related souvenirs as it is exclusive to them. Even though some of these souvenirs may have the signs of Maori culture, but they are not related to it at all. Just like the Russian dolls with the Maori whanau on the left. Please click here for more information.


Merchandising uses the logo or copyrighted image to promote a certain product and it can be seen in the case of the All Blacks team.
All Blacks is the national rugby team of New Zealand and they are look up upon to. The locals are supportive of the team and are excited with anything related to them. Adidas took the chance to produce merchandise that has the All Blacks logo printed on it. Locals are drawn to the product as it shows that support and admiration to them. In this case, profits are earned using the logo of All Blacks.

Disneyland: As we all know, besides having entertainment, Disney theme parks consist of an abundance of restaurants and souvenir shops. All these make Disneyland an all-inclusive theme park where tourists can stay longer and at the same time spend more money there.

Festivals: As I have mentioned in my previous post about festivals in New Zealand, the New Zealand International Arts Festival attracts a high amount of tourists every year. These tourists that are motivated to visit New Zealand because of the festival are at the same time swayed to experience whatever is there. E.g. Maori culture, skiing, food, etc.

In this case, the primary purpose of the tourists is to attend the festival but because of the rest of the tourism product available there, they in some way consume it at the same time.

Disneyland: As I have mentioned above, the staff in the Disney theme parks often put up a superficial front so as to represent the spirit of Disney.

Rainbow's End: This is a premier theme park in New Zealand. Just like Disneyland have the adventure park and space mountain, Rainbow's End have themes such as Enchanted Forest and Chalet Village. The park mascots like Rai and Bow have to convey the park spirit and spread it to the visitors.

Disneyization has been proved to earn Disney theme parks world recognition and economic benefits. As we have seen above, New Zealand has also incorporated the different dimensions of disneyization in various forms. This has helped them to better market themselves as a tourist destination and generate higher revenue.

Wednesday, December 1, 2010

Growth of Tourism in New Zealand

Let us first take a look at some important facts about tourism in New Zealand.
  • Tourism contributes $18.6 billion to the economy each year—9% of New Zealand’s gross domestic product. It is also an important source of employment.
  • Tourism provides Maori with important opportunities to nurture, celebrate, and present their culture to the world. Maori culture, in turn, adds a unique dimension to tourism in New Zealand.
  • Tourism improves the value of national parks and other protected natural areas. It also benefits from them. The $8.8 million the Government spends each year on Fiordland National Park has helped generate 1600 jobs, $196 million in spending in the regional economy, value-added income of $78 million, and household income of $55 million. Concessionaires benefit from and add value to conservation lands.
The above information was obtained from New Zealand Tourism Strategy.

I have identified some cultural changes that tourism has brought about to the Maori.

1.1 Positive Cultural Impacts of Tourism in the case of Maori

· Tourism creates the sense of pride among Maori as tourists purchase their handmade art and craft goods.

· Maori culture can be preserved as Maori people get the opportunities to meet people and share it with them.

· As tourists are interested in the Maori culture, more plans and actions are taken to preserve it in order to attract more tourists.

1.2 Negative Cultural Impacts of Tourism on Maori

· Some international tourists do not recognize the Maori cultural values and protocol (e.g. wandering around a Marae -sacred religious place)

· Inappropriate use of Maori images in tourism. It creates the wrong idea about Maori and it can be culturally damaging

· Commodification of Maori culture - cheap materials being used for traditional crafts.

· Not all shops selling Maori crafts are Maori owned or operated or benefit Maori in economic terms.


2.1 Positive Environmental Impacts of Tourism

· Green Globe

Green Globe is an initiative programme adopted by New Zealand tourism operators that is dedicated to sustain the environment. It is a worldwide benchmarking and certification system for the travel and tourism industry. New Zealand presence is administered by the Sustainable Business Company which assists tourism operators in all areas of sustainable development and facilitates growth of Green Globe.

By choosing Green Globe Benchmarked or Certified participants, travellers can have the confidence their tourism dollars are going to support companies that have demonstrated a strong commitment to sustainable practices.

· Environmentally Sustainable Tourism Project

The New Zealand Government has also taken a leading hand, with its Environmentally Sustainable Tourism Project, built on a successful pilot programme in Northland.

The project aims to establish six regional sustainable tourism charters committed to sustainable practices, and the participating groups will enable the tourism industry to continue promoting New Zealand as a 'clean and green' destination by improving the environmental performance of participating tourism operators and providing ways to improve individual business capability around sustainable practices.

2.2 Negative Environmental Impacts of Tourism

· Pressure of visitor numbers on marine mammals – especially the Hector’s Dolphin

· Physical Damage: This is caused by the foot or vehicle damage to the surface. An increase in the amount of people in a place causes wear and tear to the environment. E.g. plant damage, soil disruption and sediment erosion

· Wildlife Disturbance: Visitors can intrude upon wildlife by their visual presence to their movement, noise, and behaviour.

· Hazard Introduction Effects: Visitors may introduce hazards from negative behaviours such as fuel leakage or disposal.

· The influx of tourists at peak times to Akaroa is placing additional strain on the town’s sewerage treatment system


3.1 Positive Economic Impacts of Tourism
  • Create Jobs: Research shows that every job in tourism creates an average of 0.46 other jobs elsewhere in New Zealand. One in every 10 New Zealanders works in the tourism industry.
  • Tourist Spending: Spending by international tourists in New Zealand increased 1.6 percent ($149 million) in the year ended March 2010, according to the Tourism Satellite Account: 2010 published today by Statistics New Zealand.

3.2 Negative Economic Impacts of Tourism

  • Increase property tax for locals as cost for tourism development increase due to demand.
  • Seasonality income as tourists arrival is higher during November to March
In conclusion, Tourism has brought about significant benefits to the New Zealanders. As I have mentioned, the New Zealand government are stepping in to control the negative changes that tourism has brought about. This helps to manage the sustainability of the tourism sector.
The greatest growth that tourism caused would be in economic terms. More jobs are created for the locals and they enjoy higher standard of living. Therefore, with the tourism sector under control, I am confident that tourism in New Zealand would enjoy sustainability.

Commodification of Cultures and Tradtions

Tourism is a culprit in commodifying cultures and traditions in New Zealand.

Tourism can turn local culture into commodities where religious, traditions, local customs and festivals are reduced to conformed to tourist expectations. The most significant commodification of culture and tradition in New Zealand can be seen in the case of the Maori.

Maori culture is unique to New Zealand and thus forms a central component of New Zealand’s tourism product. With the increase interest in the Maori culture, many locals are trying to duplicate the Maori culture performance to gain profit from it. In order to adapt to tourist demands, these performers modify the original dance moves.

All Blacks
This can be seen in the All Blacks rugby team whereby Italian truck manufacturer Iveco became the global sponsor for them even though they have no relationship to rugby. This intensify the commodification of Maori culture as All Blacks would perform the Ka Mate Haka prior to each match. As a sponsor, Iveco released a televised advertisement of the All Blacks performing the Ka Mate Haka to equate the power of All Blacks and their trucks. The advertisements were released in Italy, Spain and Great Britain. The Ka Mate Haka moves were changed to accommodate the preference of the audience.

This is the video that Iveco released.

Maori Russian dolls made in China and sold in New Zealand
China-made Russian dolls featuring Maori whanau are being sold in New Zealand. These dolls have nothing to do with the Maori culture but tourists purchase it even so.

This commodifies the Maori culture as it simplifies the nature of the Maori war face paint to a design to be placed on irrelevant products.

In conclusion, I feel that tourism is one of the biggest culprit in commodifying cultures and traditions in New Zealand. Experiences are being commodified into objects that "represent" them. This is all due to the fact that commodification of culture helps to generate economic benefits.


All references used throughout this blog can be found below:


About us: New Zealand International Arts Festival. (2010). Retrieved December 1, 2010, from New Zealand International Arts Festival:

Betty, R. J. (2008). Fantasia NZ? Retrieved December 8, 2010, from The Disneyfication of the New Zealand Shopping Mall:

Butler, S. (2006). Culture Smart! New Zealand. London: Kuperard.

Cardrona Valley. (2010). Retrieved December 6, 2010, from New Zealand:

Kiwi (people) - Definition. (2010). Retrieved December 1, 2010, from Word IQ:

Maori. (n.d.). Retrieved December 1, 2010, from Maori:

Maori Russian dolls made in China, sold in NZ. (2010). Retrieved December 7, 2010, from The Dominion Post:

Mt Tarawera. (2010). Retrieved December 7, 2010, from Naturally New Zealand Holiday:

Neilson, M., & Collins, M. (2004). Going to Live in New Zealand. Oxford: How to Books Ltd.

Nugget Point Lighthouse. (2010). Retrieved December 7, 2010, from New Zealand:

NZTG. (2010). Culture in New Zealand. Retrieved December 2, 2010, from New Zealand Tourism Guide:

Rawlings-Way, C., Atkinson, B., & hunt, E. (2009). New Zealand's South Island. Lonely Planet.

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